Fiestas Patrias is a Spanish phrase meaning “Patriotic Holidays” or “National Holidays”.
Aniversario de la Constitución (Anniversary of the Constitution) :
Anniversary of the Constitution is celebrated every year on 5th February. This day commemorates the anniversary of the Constitution XCV 1917 which was promulgated after the Mexican Revolution on February 5.
However in 2005 the Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) was modified to provide first Monday of February (regardless the date) as an oholiday in Mexico. This law became effective since 2006.
As an independent nation, Mexico has had three constitutions that have been defined throughout history. The first constitution was done in the year 1824, the second was published when Benito Juarez was president and in 1857 and in the year of 1917 when Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro Obregon were leading the country, the constitution was amended in articles 3, 27 and 123.
In fact, arguably the current constitution of Mexico is the oldest Constitution in Latin America, if we consider that the Constitution of Argentina, which was issued in 1853, underwent a comprehensive reform in 1994, which can be considered almost a new Constitution.
Natalicio de Benito Juárez (Birth of Benito Juárez) :
This day commemorates the birth of President Benito Juárez’s who was borm on 21st March 1806. Considered as a National Hero, Benito Juarez was a Mexican politician and statesman of the late nineteenth century who was president for five terms in the turbulent years of 1858 to 1872.
He also resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal efforts to modernize the country.
However in 2005 the Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) was modified to provide the third Monday of March (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. This law became effective since 2006.
Día del Trabajo (Labor Day) :
Día del Trabajo i.e., the Labor Day is celebrated in Mexico is an official holiday on 1st May every year. The day commemorates the Mexican workers’ union movements – specifically, the 1906 Cananea, Sonora, and the 1907 Río Blanco, Veracruz, labor unrest and repression.
The day is celebrated with parades, demonstrations and other symbols of solidarity with the worker.
Grito de Dolores and Aniversario de la Independencia (Cry of Dolores and Anniversary of the Mexican Independence Day) :
Grito de Dolores (on the evening of September 15) and Aniversario de la Independencia (16th September) commemorate Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s Grito de Dolores. On 16th September 1810, Hidalgo called for the end of Spanish rule in Mexico in the village of Dolores, near Guanajuato. On 18th October 1825, the Republic of Mexico officially declared 16th September as its national Independence Day (Dia de la Independencia).
Mexican Independence day, also referred to as Dieciséis de septiembre. It is celebrated from the evening of 15th September with a re-creation of the Grito de Dolores by all officials from the President of the Republic down to municipal presidents and it continues for the whole night.
Aniversario de la Revolución (Mexican Revolution Day) :
This day Mexicans recall and show respect to the Mexican Revolution which started on 20th November 1910. Madero planned a revolt against dictator Porfirio Díaz who ruled over Mexico 31-year-long.
Earlier 20th November was an official holiday in Mexico and all schools gave extended holidays if the day was a Tuesday or Thursday. Although 20th November is the official day, the revolt started on different days in different parts of the country. The Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) mentions that the third Monday of November every year will be an official holiday in Mexico. This modification in the law was made in the year 2005 which was effective from 2006.